Teaching About Mental Health through Music

Clinical psychology graduate student, Samantha Myhre, and I bonded a few years ago over our love of music. We both like to see live shows and get super-close to the stage. For example, here are some pictures Samantha has taken:

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Eddie Vedder on the left; Chris Cornell on the right

And a few I have taken:

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Aesop Rock on the left; Against Me! on the right

 

 

The connections we each have personally with music (discussed in more detail in this podcast episode) carried over to our Abnormal Psychology classes. We both found that adding class activities with music components engaged undergraduate students. Anecdotally, they enjoyed looking more deeply into lyrics than they had in the past. Some also said they experienced increased compassion and comprehension for mental disorder symptoms through the connection to music.

I posted our combined list of mental health-related songs below in case it’s helpful for people teaching these topics. If you have any that you think should be added, please let us know!

Anxiety:

  • 19th Nervous Breakdown (by The Rolling Stones)
  • If I Ever Feel Better (by Phoenix)
  • Breathe (by U2)
  • Flagpole Sitta (by Harvey Danger)
  • Intro to Anxiety (by Hoodie Allen)

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder:

  • Wrong (by Depeche Mode)
  • A.D.H.D. (by Kendrick Lamar)
  • Epiphany (by Staind)
  • Bouncing Around the Room (by Phish)

Autism Spectrum:

  • We’ll Get By (The Autism Song) (by Johnny Orr Band)
  • So It Goes (by various artists and parents)
  • Missing Pieces (by Mark Leland/Tim Calhoun)
  • I’m In Here (the anthem for autism – written from perspective of child with autism

Bipolar Disorder:

  • Manic (by Plumb)
  • Bi-Polar Bear (by Stone Temple Pilots)
  • Manic Depression (by Jimi Hendrix)
  • Lithium (by Nirvana)
  • Secrets (by Mary Lambert)
  • Down In It (by Nine Inch Nails)
  • Given to Fly (by Pearl Jam)
  • Everybody Cares, Everybody Understands (by Elliot Smith)
  • I Go To Extremes (by Billy Joel)
  • One Step Up (by Bruce Springsteen)

Depression:

  • Fell on Black Days (by Soundgarden)
  • Cleaning my Gun (by Chris Cornell)
  • Hurt (by Nine Inch Nails)
  • Lithium (by Nirvana)
  • Save Me (by Ryan Adams)
  • Today (by The Smashing Pumpkins)
  • Sway (by The Rolling Stones)
  • Turn Blue (by The Black Keys)
  • Twilight (by Vanessa Carlton)
  • Come Around (by Counting Crows)
  • Lost Cause (by Beck)
  • You Know You’re Right (by Nirvana)
  • Oh My Sweet Carolina (by Ryan Adams & Emmylou Harris)
  • Philadelphia (by Bruce Springsteen)
  • Someone Saved My Life Tonight (by Elton John)
  • Spaceman (by The Killers)
  • Go Tell Everybody (by The Horrible Crowes)
  • Danko/Manuel (by Drive-By Truckers/Jason Isbell)
  • Fade to Black (by Metallica)
  • Nutshell (by Alice in Chains)
  • Keep Steppin’ (by Atmosphere)
  • Adam’s Song (by Blink 182)
  • Whiskey Lullaby (by Brad Paisley & Allison Krauss)
  • Screaming Infidelities (by Dashboard Confessional)
  • Rhyme & Reason (by Dave Matthews Band)
  • Gotta Find Peace of Mind (by Lauryn Hill)
  • Creep (by Radiohead)
  • Everybody Hurts (by R.E.M.)
  • So Many Tears (by Tupac Shakur)
  • Dark Times (by The Weeknd)
  • Electro-Shock Blues (by Eels)
  • Quiet Times (by Dido)
  • Comfortably Numb (by Pink Floyd)
  • Hate Me (by Blue October)
  • Girl With Broken Wings (by Manchester Orchestra)
  • Jumper (by Third Eye Blind)
  • Miss Misery (by Elliott Smith)
  • Best I Ever Had (by Gary Allan)
  • A Picture of Me (Without You) (by George Jones)
  • Behind Blue Eyes (by The Who)
  • One of Four (hidden track, end of Maintenance by Aesop Rock)
  • Down in a Hole (by Alice in Chains)
  • Keep Steppin’ (by Atmosphere)
  • Picket Fence (by Brother Ali)
  • Rain Water (by Brother Ali)
  • Sullen Girl (by Fiona Apple)
  • That Hump (by Erykah Badu)
  • Rock Bottom (by Eminem)
  • Boulevard of Broken Dreams (by Green Day)
  • Moonshine (by the Gift of Gab)
  • Mad World (by Tears for Fears)
  • Black Clouds (by Papa Roach)
  • Trouble in Mind (by Nina Simone)
  • Much Finer (by Le Tigre)

Eating Disorders:

  • Ana’s Song (Open Fire; by Silverchair)
  • Demons (by Imagine Dragons)

Intellectual Disabilities:

  • This Isn’t Disneyland (by The Sisters of Intervention)
  • I Am (by Liz Longley)
  • We’re Just the Same (by Terry Vital)

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:

  • Monster (by Paul Walters) is a song by Paul Walters who was on A&Es Obsessed. This song was created after his decade long battle with OCD
  • Ana’s Song (by Silverchair) does a nice job of highlighting compulsions)
  • Obsessions (by Marina and the Diamonds)

Panic Disorder/Panic:

  • Be Calm (by fun.)
  • If the Brakeman Turns My Way (by Bright Eyes)
  • Circus Galop (by Marc-André Hamelin)

Positive Body Image:

  • Nobody’s Perfect (by Hannah Montana – nice Disney Channel throwback)
  • Stay Beautiful (by Taylor Swift)
  • All About That Bass (by Meghan Trainor)
  • Dumb Blonde (by Dolly Parton)
  • Just the Way You Are (by Bruno Mars)
  • What Makes You Beautiful (by One Direction)
  • Try (by Colbie Caillat)
  • Fat Bottomed Girls (by Queen)
  • Born This Way (by Lady Gaga)
  • Beautiful (by Christina Aguilera)
  • Flawless (by Beyonce)
  • You’re Beautiful (by James Blunt)
  • F**kin’ Perfect (by P!nk)
  • Beautiful (by John Mayer)
  • Hips Don’t Lie (by Shakira)
  • Fight Song (by Rachel Platten)
  • Love Me (by Katy Perry)
  • On My Own (by Miley Cyrus)
  • Unpretty (by TLC)
  • Feelin’ Myself (by Nicki Minaj ft. Beyonce)
  • My Kind of Woman (by Justin Moore)
  • I’d Want It to Be Yours (by Justin Moore)
  • The Perfect Woman (by Bo Burnham)

Here‘s a playlist my class made with positive body image songs.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder/Trauma:

  • Wrong Side of Heaven (by Five Finger Death Punch)
  • Hidden Wounds (by dEUS)
  • Drum + Fife (by Smashing Pumpkins)

Schizophrenia/Psychotic Symptoms:

  • Jump They Say (by the late and great David Bowie) was a song written about Bowie’s brother who had schizophrenia and died by suicide while experiencing auditory hallucinations
  • Basket Case (by Green Day)
  • Is There a Ghost (by Band of Horses) is about Band of Horses member Ben Bridwell’s experiences with paranoia
  • Annabelle (by Dessa)
  • Shine On You Crazy Diamond (by Pink Floyd)
  • Going Crazy (by Jean Grae)

Social Anxiety:

  • Social Anxiety (by Nicola Elias)
  • The Quiet One (by The Who)
  • Things the Grandchildren Should Know (by Eels)

Substance Use:

  • Everyone’s At It (by Lily Allen)
  • Never Did (by Perfume Genius)
  • Sober (by P!nk)
  • Not If You Were The Last Junkie On Earth (by The Dandy Warhols):
  • Needle and the Damage Done (by Neil Young)
  • Under the Bridge (by Red Hot Chili Peppers)
  • Rehab (by the late Amy Winehouse)
  • Detox Mansion (by Warren Zevon)
  • Cover Me Up (by Jason Isbell)
  • Super 8 (by Jason Isbell)
  • Choices (by George Jones)
  • Stockholm (by Jason Isbell)
  • Starting Over (by Macklemore & Ryan Lewis)
  • Amazing (by Aerosmith)
  • That Smell (by Lynyrd Skynyrd)
  • Gravity (by A Perfect Circle)
  • Numb (by Alanis Morissette)
  • Save You (by Pearl Jam)
  • You’re Gone (by Diamond Rio)
  • Sunloathe (by Wilco)
  • Unforgiven (by Hal Ketchum)
  • Uncle Johnny (by The Killers)
  • Drug Ballad (by Eminem)
  • The Man I Knew (by Dessa)
  • Habits (Stay High, by Tove Lo)

Suicide/Self-Harm

  • Asleep (by The Smiths)
  • The Ledge (by The Replacements)
  • Vincent (by Don McClean)
  • King’s Crossing (by Elliott Smith)
  • Suicidal Thoughts (by Notorious B.I.G.)
  • Last Resort (by Papa Roach)
  • Like Suicide (by Soundgarden)
  • The Great Escape (by P!nk)
  • Hold On (by Good Charlotte)
  • Don’t Try Suicide (by Queen)
  • 1-800-273-8255 (by Logic)
  • Out of Here (by Brother Ali)
  • Moment of Truth (by Gang Starr)
  • Jeremy (by Pearl Jam)
  • Coming Apart (by Friends of Emmet)
  • The Pretender (by Jackson Browne)
  • Keep Livin’ (by Jean Grae)
  • Keep on Livin’ (by Le Tigre)

Here‘s a playlist my class made with songs that give them hope when they’re feeling down.

While I have you here thinking about mental health and music, I recommend checking out Dessa:

 

Congratulations to Dr. Kwan & Dr. Minnich!

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Congratulations to Dr. Mun Yee Kwan & Dr. Allison Minnich for completing their doctorates in clinical psychology! After their internships, Dr. Kwan will be an Assistant Professor at West Texas A & M University, while Dr. Minnich will be a clinician at the Chicago Cognitive Behavioral Treatment Center! It was an honor to serve as their advisor, and I couldn’t be prouder of them on their graduation day! The world gained two fantastic clinical psychologists!

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A Note to Chris Cornell Fans from a Chris Cornell Fan

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Chris Cornell in Minneapolis, October 2015 (photo credit: Samantha Myhre)

When I learned about Chris Cornell’s death this morning, I was filled with disbelief and sadness. Chris was a remarkable musician

and a humanitarian.

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When I learned that he died by suicide, I couldn’t help but think back to how painful it was to learn of Kurt Cobain’s death by suicide years ago.

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a bench turned memorial outside of Kurt Cobain’s former house

If someone you don’t know can have such an impact on your life, it’s hard to fathom how much pain Chris’ loved ones are experiencing right now. My heart goes out to them. I hope they receive all of the support, respect, and privacy they need in the face of their tragic loss.

There will be (and already are) amazing pieces dedicated to Chris’ legacy as a musician, as a humanitarian, and his personal impact in his roles as a friend, father, and husband.

What I want to focus on here is something that came to mind as I recalled MTV’s interviews with people about their reactions to Kurt’s death. In particular, I was thinking about people who had suffered from their own mental health problems and looked to Kurt as a symbol of hope. I know there were people who looked at Chris, who had been open about past mental health struggles, in the same way. When you see someone you look up to survive and thrive in the face of mental health struggles – it’s inspiring. When you lose that person, it can dampen your own hope.

To the Chris Cornell fans out there:

First, I am so very sorry for your loss and all of the hurt that goes with it.

Secondly, I want you to know that mental health problems are treatable and that suicide is preventable. Please take care of yourself – reach out for help and support. There is strength in seeking help, and mental health struggles are nothing to be ashamed of. You matter – please stay.*

For information about suicide warning signs and suicide prevention, please go to the American Association of Suicidology website.

A useful resource for finding mental health help can be found here.

If you are having thoughts about suicide, please contact the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline.

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*#STAY is a t-shirt campaign for suicide prevention started by Live Through This. You can find out more about it here.

13 Thoughts on 13 Reasons Why

**WARNING: SPOILERS APPEAR IN THIS POST.**

I watched the new Netflix series 13 Reasons Why (based on a book with the same title). This post sums up my reactions, and I am also in the process of recording detailed Jedi Counsel podcast episodes on the series with my co-host. Some people say this is art and entertainment, and therefore, exempt from social responsibility. Nonetheless, many people will watch this series, and that makes it important to view it critically and to consider its implications. My thoughts aren’t fully formed yet, but I wanted to post something as the series came out without waiting until I had it all sorted out. My feelings and opinions may develop more as I process the material for a longer period of time. I’m open and curious about other perspectives.

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  1. The series is set up as a mystery that quickly pulled me into the story. I finished the whole series within a few days. The framework for the series is that an adolescent, Hannah Baker, has died by suicide and left behind audio tapes detailing every component that she believes led up to her death. In addition, she has a methodical plan for the specific people who should listen to the tapes, how they should be listened to, and the order in which people hear them. While this is a compelling way to reveal a mystery, I believe that it contributes to stigma by painting the picture of a woman who ended her life for the purposes of getting attention from the individuals she believed ruined her life. The tone of her delivery is blaming and feels vengeful. I worry this perpetuates the myth that suicide is typically driven by desire for attention, selfishness, or revenge…which it most certainly is not.
  2. There is a scene that is explicitly blaming of one of the few kind (though not perfect) people in the series (Hannah’s friend and love interest, Clay). Hannah’s friend, Tony, tells Clay that Hannah would have been alive if he had acted differently. He later softens his tone, saying it is not Clay’s fault and Hannah is responsible for the choice that she made. Still, the blame message is there in a scene where Hannah tells Clay repeatedly to leave her alone. He reluctantly leaves the room. The show then depicts a parallel universe where the “right” things happened: Clay insists on staying despite Hannah clearly asking him to leave her alone, he turns the conversation around through persistence, Hannah feels loved, and suicide is prevented. In light of the violations of consent elsewhere in the series (including two rape scenes), I was bothered by Clay being painted as having done the wrong thing when he honored Hannah’s wishes to leave her alone.
  3.  Hannah decides, as her last attempt at help-seeking, to reach out to her school counselor about her suicidal thoughts and being the victim of rape. The counselor, insensitively and against best practice guidelines, implies she may be partially to blame (e.g., asking if she verbally said no to the perpetrator, asking if she had been drinking) and jumps right into telling her that her only choices are to: 1) report the assault or 2) to move on. She leaves the office, and he doesn’t follow-up with her in any way. He doesn’t ask for more details or conduct a suicide risk assessment, and he does not try to reach out to her parents to prevent her from harming herself. Of course, there are some counselors out there who might act in this irresponsible way. However, the vast majority would not. In a show that is viewed by a lot of young people, the depiction of the counselor matters a lot. People are already reluctant to reach out to mental health professionals. I worry people would feel even more discouraged from seeking help after seeing this terrible, judgmental, unethical interaction.
  4. The series accurately portrays some of the risk factors for suicide: social isolation, loneliness, and disconnection from others (including in the painful forms of bullying), perceiving herself as a burden (e.g., she describes herself as a “problem” for her parents and especially feels burdensome after accidentally losing some of their money), family conflict (her parents argue about issues including finances), witnessing and then being a victim of sexual assault, and hopelessness about her future (e.g., with regard to college and other plans).
  5. I appreciated the series emphasizing how crucial social connections are for health and talking about different types of loneliness – including individuals truly isolated and those who feel “lonely in a crowd.” It seemed to make the point that even apparently popular people (like Zack) can feel lonely. I believe this sends the message that anyone is vulnerable to loneliness, and we shouldn’t assume people are doing well just because they appear that way on the outside.
  6. One of the themes of the series is that – at any point – one person listening, reaching out, or doing something differently could have prevented Hannah’s suicide. Ultimately, this is a positive message. Unfortunately, I think it’s lost and distorted because it is used to blame people for their failures to save Hannah rather than demonstrating that one person could have made a difference and changed the story to a hopeful one. If the counselor or one of her parents had connected with Hannah and supported her in seeking help for her struggles, this point would have been much more persuasive. Instead, the story feels more demoralizing than inspiring to me.
  7. Hannah’s death scene is a graphic depiction of her cutting her wrists with razorblades in a bathtub. In a documentary-type episode made about the series, they said that it was to show the painful and hard-to-look-at nature of suicide. To me, it feels like a choice to make a dramatic, visually startling conclusion to the story rather than to deliver a lesson. It makes sense – this is a series meant to be watched and to get people glued to their screens- not a PSA. It’s possible that an individual who feels suicidal might see that and be afraid; however, it’s also quite plausible that an individual feeling suicidal might mistakenly view it as an end to all of Hannah’s emotional pain and problems. Anecdotally, there are cases of suicidal individuals watching scenes of suicide building up to taking their own life.
  8. There are warnings in the beginnings of episodes where there are graphic scenes (e.g., sexual assault, suicidal behavior). It would have been helpful if the episodes had information about resources, such as the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline and the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, embedded in them too. It would be a simple way to reach a lot of people. Again, the series created a separate short documentary-like episode with mental health professionals and resources in it. However, it appears completely separately from the series (rather than as the 14th episode, for example). It would reach more people if it was connected to the full series.
  9. The pain Hannah’s parents experience after her death is excruciating. I feel this is one of the most realistic aspects of the series. It shows their horror, their confusion, their regret, and their desire to prevent other suicides from occurring. In the documentary afterwards, they suggest that this might show individuals who feel suicidal about the pain that others would experience if they died. I think this may be the case for some, but for certain individuals, tragically, they might imagine that people wouldn’t feel the same way about their death. That’s the cruelty of perceiving oneself as a burden – people struggling with mental health problems may not see how the world is better with them in it.
  10. Related to the second point, several characters clearly violate Hannah. Marcus and Bruce grab her, Tyler and Justin take and share revealing pictures without permission, and Bryce rapes her. When Hannah and Clay are starting to kiss, Clay asks, “Is this okay?” I really liked this scene because it shows how asking about consent is natural and enhances, rather than ruins, the moment. It also shows a welcome contrast in that Clay genuinely respects and cares about her feelings and perspective. Sadly, this positive point gets diminished when the scene turns into Hannah yelling for him to “get the hell out” and the suggestion that if he had only ignored her wishes, he would have saved her life (as described above).
  11. From one perspective, it seems like a point of the series is to teach bullies that their actions can lead to someone dying by suicide. However, most people who are bullied do not die by suicide – people are often remarkably resilent in the face of great adversity. It’s important that people who are on the receiving end of bullying know that. Secondly, most of the people on Hannah’s tapes are more concerned about protecting their own secrets (e.g., that Courtney is attracted to women, that Justin allowed Bryce to rape Jessica, that Ryan published Hannah’s poem without her permission) than how they hurt Hannah. If the message is supposed to be an anti-bullying one, I don’t think it really connects with bullying people in the audience. I guess that it would resonate more with people on the receiving end of bullying who feel a sense of hopelessness about the bullies having any potential for empathy and a sense that there is no help available to them.
  12. On two occasions, two adults (the counselor and the communications teacher) state that the warning signs for suicide include withdrawing from friends and family, changes in appearance, and trouble in group projects. This was a great opportunity to share the real warning signs for suicide, but unfortunately, only the first one really maps onto the list.
  13. A lighthearted, sweet aspect of the series is that Clay is different from his peers in that he cares relatively less about what other people think of him. He still cares what people, including Hannah, think of him to some extent, but he doesn’t try as hard as his peers to be something he’s not. He feels nervous around Hannah, but doesn’t ever really pretend to be someone else. He doesn’t let other people’s opinions make him feel bad about himself. Again, Clay’s not perfect (he says some mean things to Hannah and looks at a revealing picture that Tyler took without consent). But, overall, he’s smart, sensitive, caring, a good student, interested in the world beyond the walls of his school, helps others, takes reasonable caution in his decision-making, and likes geek stuff like Lord of the Rings and Star Wars. During one exchange, Hannah says to Clay, “Wow. You’re an actual nerd. There’s courage in that.” Most of the other characters in the series view themselves and their worth in terms of what their peers think of them. This generally rings true with regard to this developmental period in adolescence. It’s refreshing to see someone who has some self-acceptance and a sense of what’s right in the midst of all of the tragedy.

You can check out our first podcast episode on this series here and our second episode here.

If you or someone you know needs help, please reach out. There is hope and help is available here.

10 Hamilton Quotes for Therapists

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Like many people, I am enamored with the music from Hamilton. There are so many things to like – all the hip-hop (e.g., Cabinet Battle #1!), the psychologically complex and nuanced development of the characters, the diversity of the creators, cast, and crew, and the powerful storytelling of US history. Because I like to explore mental health in fictional characters, I was tempted to with Hamilton as well (i.e., why did Burr and Hamilton end up on such different trajectories?). However, they are based on real people and real lives, so I don’t want to speculate about them (at least not in a blog post). So, similar to what I did with Star Wars, I decided to make a list of 10 quotes from Hamilton, that in my opinion, may be useful for therapists working with Hamilton fans (who are numerous these days).

1)  On mindfulness and gratitude:

Look around, look around at how/Lucky we are to be alive right now!

2) On taking healthy risks and decreasing unhealthy avoidance:

Rise up! Time to take a shot!

3) On acceptance, patience, resilience, and meaning-making:

Love doesn’t discriminate
Between the sinners
And the saints
It takes and it takes and it takes
And we keep loving anyway
We laugh and we cry
And we break
And we make our mistakes

Death doesn’t discriminate
Between the sinners
And the saints
It takes and it takes and it takes
And we keep living anyway
We rise and we fall
And we break
And we make our mistakes
And if there’s a reason I’m still alive
When everyone who loves me has died
I’m willing to wait for it
I’m willing to wait for it

4) On self-empowerment/accepting that one cannot change other peoples’ behavior:

I am the one thing in life I can control

5-6) On understanding historical context for clients who may belong to marginalized groups:

You want a revolution? I want a revelation
So listen to my declaration:

“We hold these truths to be self-evident
That all men are created equal”

And when I meet Thomas Jefferson

I’m ‘a compel him to include women in the sequel!

A civics lesson from a slaver. Hey neighbor
Your debts are paid cuz you don’t pay for labor

7) On not equating self-worth with work achievements

I don’t pretend to know
The challenges you’re facing
The worlds you keep erasing and creating in your mind

So long as you come home at the end of the day
That would be enough

We don’t need a legacy

8) On self-compassion:

Look at where you are
Look at where you started
The fact that you’re alive is a miracle

9) On not letting perfectionism interfere with productivity:

Burr (on the U.S. Constitution): And if it fails?
Hamilton: Burr, that’s why we need it
Burr: The constitution’s a mess
Hamilton: So it needs amendments
Burr: It’s full of contradictions
Hamilton: So is independence
/We have to start somewhere

10)  On prioritizing health and balance:

Take a break

Red River Psychology Conference 2016

Undergraduate research assistants, Zoe Citrowske Lee and Branden Smith, presented research from our lab at the 30th Annual Red River Psychology Conference. Zoe’s project examined suicide risk among undergraduate students who belong to ethnic minority groups, while Branden’s project examined the relationships between different facets of emotion regulation difficulties and nonsuicidal self-injury. They did an excellent job sharing our research with conference attendees (see pictures below)!
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10 Tips for Writing

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Raymond Tucker, a clinical psychology graduate student at Oklahoma State University, suggested the topic for this blog post and co-wrote it with me.

The late A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, former physicist, aerospace engineer, and president of India once wrote, “Writing is my love. If you love something, you find a lot of time for it. I write two hours a day, usually starting at midnight; at times, I start at eleven.” For me (Ray), this sounds about right… well…. not the first half of the quote… or most of the second half actually… well, really just the starting at midnight part is spot-on. My association with writing during graduate school may not be quite so romantic. Hours of fumbling over sentences, second-guessing work, and responding to endless amounts of track changes, red pen scribbles, and obscene suggestions made by Reviewer 2 (it’s always Reviewer 2) has, at times, left me considering the option of hurling my laptop out of our third story laboratory window.

However, developing skills as an efficient writer is of the utmost importance for a young scientist. It is the goal of this blog post to detail some writing “tidbits” to help young scientists become disciplined writers. Honestly, our goal could most easily be accomplished by telling you to read Dr. Paul Silvia’s book, How to Write A Lot. His book details common misconceptions about writing and important characteristics of highly successful writers. Our hope is to cut some of Dr. Silvia’s thoughts into easy-to-digest chunks, as well as add some insight of our own.

  • Schedule your writing time and guard it ferociously. Schedule when and where you will write. Although this simple scheduling can help you stay more disciplined (even if only 15 words make it onto your Word document), this tip is only helpful if you guard your writing time. Treat it like a meeting with your laptop that simply cannot be rescheduled. Would you cancel a meeting with the Dean? Nope! Heck, name your laptop Dean if that helps. Just guard this time.
  • Writing does not always need to occur in one sitting or during large periods of time. It is easy to get in the habit of saying things like, “I do best when I can sit down and just write the whole paper.” This may feel true, but likely is not. Writing every day, even for 10, 15, or 30 minutes helps keep information fresh in your mind and prevents the dreaded procrastination writing binge that can negatively impact the quality of work produced. Dean Laptop will appreciate more consistent, short periods of attention in comparison to sporadic, long work dates.
  • Know that you are likely to inaccurately predict how long your writing task will take you to accomplish, and just write when you can. This definitely goes along with the previous point, but does expand by noting that predicting time needed to complete a writing task is an imperfect science. One way of behaviorally avoiding a writing project includes feeling like it will take forever to finish and that you need to block off a large chunk of time to write. The opposite can be true. Putting off a writing project because you believe it will only take an hour or two may be another way to avoid buckling down with Dean Laptop and crossing off a project on your to-do list.
  • Be prepared for additional writing time. If you are a graduate student, you know the life of 101 meetings with professors, mentors, clients, and supervisors. These meetings are with pretty busy people which result in them occasionally getting canceled. Always take your writing to meetings or times you work with a client in case you wind up with some unexpected free time. Dean Laptop is highly mobile and enjoys your unexpected company.
  • You learn to write from BOTH writing and reading a lot. This is a sentiment that has been expressed to me (Ray) by advanced graduate students and leaders in the field. Of course, you learn from receiving feedback on your work, but you also learn to write by reading the works of others, especially those who are more advanced than you. I especially appreciate Dr. Thomas Joiner’s advice to make a habit of reading outside of your discipline. This not only helps you develop innovative research ideas, it potentially exposes you to very different writing styles. Read outside of your discipline, not only for content, but for writing structure and style. Dean Laptop is not only a great place to save your written work, but pdfs of others’ works as well.
  • Know that writing distractions can take many different forms. Writing procrastination is definitely a shape-shifter. Sometimes its disguise is fairly easy to see through, taking the form of Netflix binges, texting, and knee-jerk tweeting, pinning, Facebook creeping, and Instagramming. These distractions/procrastination vehicles can be pretty easy to spot. Sometimes the writing procrastination shape-shifter brings its A-game. Nitpicking outlines, fiddling with fonts and formats, and believing that you have not read enough yet to begin writing are all potentially shapes of this behavioral avoidance of the nitty-gritty task of writing. Reflecting on how you might avoid writing can be important. Below are some of our personal ways of avoiding quality time with ol’ Dean Laptop:
    • “I write best when I am at the coffee shop. I will have to go there to finish this.”
    • “I can definitely write with Orange is the New Black on in the background.”
    • “I don’t feel inspired to write.”
    • “My laptop is almost out of battery.”
    • “I haven’t printed out the Gordon et al. (2010) article yet.”
    • “I will write this weekend.” HA!
    • “I am feeling (insert psychosomatic complaint). This wouldn’t be my best work.”
  • Understand that struggles during the writing process are common and that perseverance is key. It’s important that you don’t misinterpret the experience of having difficulty with writing as an indication that you are incapable of writing well. To the contrary, many award-winning, accomplished writers have openly discussed the challenges they have faced. For example, Felicia Day wrote about the process of writing her award-winning web series, The Guild, in her New York Times bestselling book You’re Never Weird on the Internet (Almost).

Every second of writing that script felt like walking barefoot over shards of glass. I would write a bit and then I would sob, wanting desperately to erase what I’d just written…Then I would force my fingers to type more, every word feeling like I was bleeding from every orifice. I was engulfed with fear of making mistakes, of writing something stupid…I was, in short, terrified of the process. It was not fun. What drove me to continue? Sheer obstinate grit. (pp. 142-143)

Similarly, Ta-Nehisi Coates said that during the process of writing Between the World and Me, he felt “total despair” and thought, “I am about to fail and everyone will know it.” He stuck with it, and Between the World and Me went on to become a New York Times #1 Bestseller and earn a National Book Award in 2015. Coates also won a MacArthur Genius Grant in 2015 for his work. Coates shared more of his advice on writing and struggles with the process here and here.

  • Remove obstacles caused by perfectionism. There is an old saying, “Perfect is the enemy of good.” I (Katie) try to keep this in mind as I write. In particular, this means that I start typing what I am going to write well before the sentences are formed “perfectly” in my head, knowing that effective writing is typically the result of a process that involves multiple revisions rather than the first thing that comes to one’s mind on a topic. Secondly, I set time limits on my other tasks (preparation of teaching materials, responding to e-mails, blog posts) that allow for high quality (but not perfect) work, so that I can protect and prioritize writing time.
  • Use exposure to overcome writing anxiety. Worry about writing can come from multiple sources. The biggest areas of anxiety for me (Katie) come from a concern about being unable to complete a project and worry about other people (e.g., co-authors, reviewers, etc.) not thinking my work is good enough. When anxiety strikes, our urge is usually to avoid – avoid writing, avoid sharing your work with others, etc. The most effective way I’ve found to counter this anxiety has been to treat it like I would clinically – repeatedly put myself in these situations until they don’t feel as scary. Putting myself in positions where I need to complete projects with tight timelines and share my work with others teaches me that I can, in fact, handle these aspects of writing, even when it means receiving criticism of my work and other types of pressure.
  • Create interpersonal accountability for your writing. Publishing is often viewed as one of the main responsibilities for academics, and yet, it can be the hardest activity to get to in light of the clearer expected timelines for other responsibilities (e.g., meeting with students, teaching, seeing clients for therapy). For me (Katie, again), one of the most helpful strategies has been to work collaboratively with others who are expecting writing from me within a specific time frame. Setting these dates and goals, particularly when others are aware of them, increases my motivation to find the time to write despite all of my other responsibilities. This group can be other grad students, professors, co-authors, or just other individuals who have projects where they benefit from checking in with others. I often use this strategy with my lab group.

By no means are all of these suggestions easy to accomplish. Just like any good skill, practice is key. We hope you can test drive some of these tips and see what helps you become an effective and disciplined writer. We wish you the best of luck in your academic pursuits!

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