10 Star Wars Quotes for Therapists

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In anticipation of The Force Awakens, I rewatched all of the Star Wars movies over the last few months. I noticed a number of quotes that I believe exemplify therapeutic concepts and have listed my top 10 below. If you’re trying to build rapport with a Star Wars-loving client, engage students with pop culture examples, or just love psychotherapy and Star Wars, this post is for you. If you’re not interested in any of the above, stay tuned for the next post, which will focus on tips for becoming a disciplined writer!

1. Acceptance

Anakin Skywalker: I don’t want things to change.

Shmi Skywalker: But you can’t stop change any more than you can stop the suns from setting.

2. All-or-Nothing Thinking (Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy)

Darth Vader: If you’re not with me, then you’re my enemy.

3. Autonomy (Self-Determination Theory)

Princess Leia: He’s got to follow his own path. No one can choose it for him.

4. Doing What Works (Dialectical Behavior Therapy)

Anakin Skywalker: Sometimes we must let go of our pride and do what is requested of us.

5. Easy Manner (Dialectical Behavior Therapy)

Han Solo: Fly casual.

6. Mental Filter, Jumping to Conclusions (Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy)

Anakin Skywalker: She hardly even recognized me. I’ve thought about her every day since we parted. And she’s forgotten me completely.

Obi-Wan Kenobi: You’re focusing on the negative, Anakin. Be mindful of your thoughts. She was pleased to see us.

7. Mindfulness

Qui-Gon Jinn: Don’t center on your anxieties, Obi-Wan. Keep your concentration here and now, where it belongs.

Obi-Wan Kenobi: But Master Yoda said I should be mindful of the future.

Qui-Gon Jinn: But not at the expense of the moment.

8. Normalizing Difficult Emotions (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy)

Padmé Amidala: To be angry is to be human.

9. Reframing (Motivational Interviewing)

Padmé Amidala: All mentors have a way of seeing more of our faults than we would like. It’s the only way we grow.

10. Wise Mind (Dialectical Behavior Therapy)

Luke Skywalker: How am I to know the good side from the bad?

Yoda: You will know when you are calm. At peace, passive.

Advice for Aspiring Professors

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my colleague, Professor Erin Conwell

Last month, I wrote a post describing my tips for graduate school success. A student suggested that it would be helpful to have a follow-up post featuring advice about becoming a professor, and I thought that was a great idea. As you read through my recommendations for aspiring professors, please keep a few things in mind. First, disciplines, universities, and departments all vary in terms of what they look for when they are hiring. Most of my experience and knowledge come from psychology departments in the U.S. with a primary focus on research and a secondary focus on teaching. Therefore, my advice may be most applicable to people seeking out those types of jobs. Second, most graduate students are already aware that publications are a major way that job applicants are evaluated for professor positions in research-focused departments. Therefore, I have not included direct advice on publishing below, even though it is undeniably an important part of being a competitive job applicant for these types of positions and should be prioritized. Finally, many people take postdoctoral positions before applying to work as a professor and that provides additional opportunities to gain experience in the areas described below.

Programmatic Research When making hiring decisions, faculty select applicants who are likely to succeed at establishing an active research program in their department. One way to increase their confidence in your ability to do that is to have a specific plan for the types of research that you will pursue both in the short-term and the long-term. If you demonstrate that you have a program of research with well-articulated, theory-driven, and well-formed research questions propelling your work, you will be a strong applicant. Alternatively, applicants who have disconnected, poorly planned, and impractical ideas will not be as competitive. 

My advice for graduate students is to think about conceptualizing your research in a programmatic way when preparing your job application materials and job talk (a presentation of your research that most interviews include). I suggest asking to see other people’s materials as samples and consulting with faculty for feedback as you prepare your own. Every piece of work (e.g., publications, presentations) that you have done does not have to fit within one theme, but it helps if you can tie your past, present, and future work together with a (or a few) overriding theme(s).

Grant potential It is also typically important that you demonstrate the ability to obtain grant funding for your work. You can do this by 1) getting a grant in graduate school (they don’t have to be major grants, smaller within-university or department grants can be helpful in this regard), 2) applying for an external grant (e.g., through the National Institute of Health or the National Science Foundation) even if it is not funded, and 3) showing that you have knowledge about grants (e.g., specific ideas about the types that you will pursue once hired).

My recommendation for graduate students is to prepare for your job application and interview by actively seeking out grant information through specialized workshops, research mentors, and websites for relevant funding agencies, which often have tutorials available. It is especially helpful, as I mentioned above, to gain experience by actually applying for grants. Even if your grant applications are not funded, it still reflects positively on you that you applied. You should understand the main types of grants that you would be eligible for and the types of projects that tend to be prioritized for funding.

Teaching potential Job applicants are also usually evaluated on their ability to teach effectively and to fill department needs. You can present evidence that you will be a good teacher through 1) positive ratings and comments from students for previously taught courses , 2) job application materials expressing enthusiasm and citing sources of specific knowledge about teaching (e.g., classes taken about teaching), and 3) letters of recommendation that positively reflect on teaching-related skills. If you are invited for an interview, you can also demonstrate your potential through positive interactions with the department’s graduate and undergraduate students and a willingness to teach a variety of classes.

In addition to seeking out the types of teaching experiences I listed above, I also suggest preparing for your job talk by practicing it for different audiences and getting feedback from a variety of people (e.g., professors both within and outside of your specialty areas). If you didn’t have a lot of teaching experience in graduate school (which was the case for me), it may be especially important to present a polished job talk that displays relevant skills: clearly expressing and connecting ideas, engaging an audience, and responding well to questions.

Collegiality As is the case with most hiring decisions, people seriously consider whether the applicant would be a good colleague. By that, I mean someone who will contribute to the department and university in meaningful ways, act with integrity, and behave respectfully toward others. Evidence that someone is likely to make a good colleague can come from 1) showing interest and enthusiasm for other people’s work in your application and on the interview, 2) being polite and interactive during the interview, and 3) letters of recommendation touching upon your strong interpersonal skills.

For this component, my advice is to be mindful of the ways that you interact with your peers, professors, and others in graduate school, so that these individuals can attest to your collegiality. You can prepare for job interviews by seeking out opportunities to interact with professors and peers in your own department, communicating with conference attendees and presenters, etc. These type of experiences will help you to refine your professional interaction style and increase your comfort level.

Match Beyond the collegiality aspect mentioned above, your goals and priorities and how well they align with the department, your openness to potentially collaborating with others in the department, and your commitment to similar values as the department (e.g., prioritizing evidence-based treatments in clinical psychology programs that have a clinical scientist training model) will all be considered.

My advice is to look closely at information about the department, the faculty, and the university and highlight areas of fit in your cover letter and then expand upon them in more detail if you are invited for an interview. 

I enjoy being a professor and wrote this post to help others who are interested in becoming professors. The application process for these types of positions can be daunting. My hope is that this post makes typical areas that are considered for hiring more transparent, and that the advice will help you to prepare for the process.

Acknowledgements

I am grateful to my graduate school mentor, Dr. Thomas Joiner, for all of his excellent job-related advice. I also want to thank Brandon Saxton for giving me the idea for this post and for feedback on an early version.

NDSU at ABCT

I had the pleasure of attending the 49th Annual Convention of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies in Chicago over the past several days, and it was an excellent conference!

Four graduate students from the NDSU Psychological Clinical Science program presented their research. 

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Mun Yee Kwan, from our lab, presented on stress generation and bulimic symptoms (details forthcoming in a manuscript that was recently accepted by Journal of Affective Disorders).

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Brandon Saxton, from the Attention and Emotion Lab, presented on differences between anxiety and sadness with regard to dual-attention RSVP performance.

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Tharaki Siyaguna, from the Attention and Emotion Lab, presented on mindfulness moderating the influence of rumination on depression.

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Samantha Myhre, from the Attention and Emotion Lab, presented on trait mindfulness serving as a protective factor against depressive symptoms.

I had the opportunity to catch up with Brooke Ammerman, who was a research assistant and honors thesis student in our lab when she was an undergraduate. She is currently doing important work on nonsuicidal self-injury as a doctoral student at Temple University.brooke

I saw so many compelling presentations on groundbreaking research in the field, including two psychologists who have influenced me as a scientist, instructor, and clinician: Marsha Linehan and Scott Lilienfeld. They each have far too many contributions to list here, but Linehan is best known for creating, developing, and rigorously testing the revolutionary Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). Lilienfeld is well-known for his prolific work identifying and calling out pseudoscience and articulating the importance of identifying and stopping harmful mental health practices, among many other contributions.

Some quotes from Linehan’s presentation (with the disclaimer that they are not exact, but rather paraphrased from the best of my memory and my notes):

  • On understanding the perspective of a client who is experiencing suicidal desire so that you can effectively intervene,”Suicide is viewed as a problem by the therapist and as a solution by the client.”
  • On dialectical thinking and the acknowledgement of multiple truths, “If you ask people what you get when you put black and white together, most will say that you get gray, but that’s not true. Black and white together makes plaid.”
  • On her clinical trial that dismantled different components of DBT to see which components were most impactful (e.g., skills group vs. individual therapy), “I try not to go into research thinking I know the answers because that’s when I usually get the worst outcomes. I was confident that the DBT skills reduced suicide attempts, but I wasn’t going to let people die to make a point. We made sure every client in our clinical trial had the formal DBT system of suicide risk assessment and prevention, regardless of group condition.”
  • A point that seems like it may be helpful for rumination prevention, “If your feelings fit the facts in a situation, you should use problem-solving. If your feelings don’t fit the facts, you should change the emotion through other methods.”

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Scott Lilienfeld and NDSU graduate student, Alisson Lass

Some quotes from Lilienfeld’s presentation (with the same disclaimer that I had for Linehan’s quotes):

  • On concern about certain branches of psychology reducing the number of statistics courses required in their graduate programs, “Statistics are the language of psychology.”
  • On the importance of including multilevel analyses of mental disorders such as sociocultural factors, he quoted George Graham, “Mental illness may be ‘in’ the brain, but not ‘of’ the brain.”
  • “Many people think the opposite, but a finding in a low-powered study is actually more likely to be a fluke than the other way around.”
  • “Descartes was so tall, that when he died, he didn’t fit in the casket. They had to cut his head off. In his death, he literally had mind-body dualism.”

We also met Judith Beck, who has made enormous contributions in the area of cognitive behavior therapy, which her father, Aaron Beck, created.

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And last, but not least, we ate some delicious food while we were there.

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the NDSU crew at Girl and the Goat

Ronda Rousey’s Fight with an Eating Disorder

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I recently read Ronda Rousey’s book My Fight/Your Fight. In case you’re not familiar with her, I will list a few of her accomplishments: she is a former UFC champion, an Olympic bronze medalist in judo, and an ESPY Award recipient of both the Fighter of the Year and Best Woman Athlete awards. A few of the personal reasons that I connect with Rousey’s story are that I also started judo as a young girl and am a black belt in it (unlike her, I am not currently in my prime fighting condition); I, too, moved from a warm-weathered coastal city to a smaller town in North Dakota; and, like her, I really value authenticity both for myself and in other people. I admire Rousey for the numerous difficulties she has overcome, her position as one of the most dominant athletes of all time, and the barriers that she broke through by not letting people stop her from pursuing her dreams in a male-dominated field.

The two aspects of Rousey’s book that are most relevant to our lab’s research are related to her father’s tragic death by suicide and her past with an eating disorder (she reportedly had bulimia nervosa that began when she was an adolescent). Rousey speaks openly and compassionately about her father and how his death by suicide impacted her. I recommend reading about it in her own words in detail in her book or briefly in a piece she wrote at this link. Here, I will focus on three points about eating disorders from her book:

  1. There is a common misperception that people with bulimia nervosa are fragile.  I can’t imagine that anyone would describe Rousey as anything other than exceptionally mentally and physically tough. You can see it in her judo matches and UFC fights. She is remarkably resilient despite the numerous hardships she has experienced (born with her umbilical cord around her neck, overcame a significant speech problem, lost her dad, and much more). Despite her obvious and immense strength, she suffered from bulimia nervosa for years before recovering. Her openness about her past helps to decrease public perception that eating disorders result from weakness.
  2. Rousey offers insight into the factors that she believes contributed to her eating disorder, and they are consistent with what we know from scientific research. Being an athleteholding perfectionistic standards, feeling dissatisfied with her body, having low social support (which she experienced when her bulimia nervosa started), and fasting (which Rousey did to make weight for competitions) all elevate the risk for developing and continuing to have an eating disorder.
  3. In her book, Rousey states that she no longer binges or purges, no longer fasts to cut weight, that she typically maintains a healthy weight (rather than striving for an unhealthy low competition weight, as she did in the past), and that she now has a positive view and appreciation for her body. Like Serena Williams and other female athletes, people have attempted to criticize Rousey’s body by saying that she looks masculine. She responded to this by saying that her body was “badass” and “there’s not a single muscle on my body that isn’t for a purpose…” She raised money for a charity that focuses on mental health issues including body image, and her positive message about body image is spreading. Beyonce played the speech where Rousey said these things during a performance, and Demi Lovato (who also recovered from an eating disorder) has also expressed admiration for Rousey. There is hope for recovery and thriving after an eating disorder. If you or a loved one needs treatment for an eating disorder, there is help available: 12, 3, and 4.

I will conclude with a fun fact for us folks who live in North Dakota. Ronda Rousey’s first full sentence was, “I like North Dakota more than California.” (p.18 of her book)

Overcoming Overthinking

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Note: If you have mental health concerns, please consult with your physician and/or a mental health professional for help. I have provided an introductory overview of rumination below with the hope of raising awareness about the research on rumination, but this does not replace the advice of a professional who personally knows you and your situation.

Most of us have had the experience where we can’t stop thinking about something, no matter how hard we try . We might pick apart the situation to see what we could have done differently, try to analyze minutiae of the incident to figure out what it all means, wonder why it happened to us, and so on. Dr. Susan Nolen-Hoeksema referred to this process as rumination and defined it as “a method of coping with negative mood that involves self-focused attention” and “repetitive and passive focus on one’s negative emotions.” If you are interested in ways that researchers and therapists measure rumination, you can look at Nolen-Hoeksema’s questionnaire here.

Though most of us ruminate from time to time, some people ruminate frequently, and people who do this are at higher risk for depression. In addition, our lab found a connection between rumination and elevated risk for binge eating, while others have found that rumination is associated with a tendency to cope through alcohol or drug use and nonsuicidal self-injury (intentionally hurting oneself without the intent to die, such as cutting or burning oneself).

If you tend to ruminate, you may have experienced people telling you to just stop overthinking a situation and move on. For many people, this is easier said than done. Fortunately, Dr. Nolen-Hoeksema offered suggestions for decreasing rumination. I will list the main ideas below, but I highly recommend reading her books for details (1, 2).

  1. Recognize that rumination is different than problem-solving or planning. Problem-solving and planning are active coping strategies, while rumination involves rethinking situations, analyzing them, and replaying them without forming an action plan or feeling a sense of resolution. Sometimes simply recognizing that one is ruminating can be a helpful first step toward decreasing it and getting on a different track.
  2. Research suggests that distraction can also help to reduce it.  Because the pull of rumination can be strong, Dr. Edward Selby suggests specifically selecting activities that are highly engaging and positive, so that they effectively shift your attention from overthinking.  Examples may include vigorous exercise, taking a hot shower, doing a crossword puzzle, holding an ice cube in your hand (a suggestion from Dialectical Behavior Therapy), watching an engrossing movie, playing a game, or any other type of healthy activity that you find helpful.
  3. Plan dedicated daily rumination time. Dr. Nolen-Hoeksema recommended scheduling a dedicated time (e.g., 30 minutes) in the day when you plan to ruminate, an exercise similar to one developed by Dr. Thomas Borkovec for worry. This might sound strange, but the idea is that if you start ruminating or worrying at any other time during the day, it is easier to change course if you think to yourself, “I don’t need to think about this now. I will save it for my designated time later.” In my clinical experience, when people devote time to ruminating in a focused way, they often find that they can’t fill the full time or that they find some resolution at the end of it. This is in contrast to a common pattern of ruminating which involves going in and out of it in a more shallow way of thinking throughout the day while completing other tasks. It is not recommended that you plan your rumination time right before bed, because it could interfere with falling asleep.
  4. Try meditation or prayer. Dr. Nolen-Hoeksema conducted community interviews and reported that some people turn their concerns over to a higher power when ruminating, and that this seems to help them gain acceptance and peace about a situation. In particular, some clients that I have worked with find the serenity prayer to be helpful with reducing overthinking. For people who are not religious or who are just looking for an additional healthy coping strategy, she suggests meditation and/or mindfulness exercises. If you would like to see what some meditation and mindfulness exercises are like, there are many options on this website. In particular, the last three exercises on that website are designed for finding new ways of relating to your troublesome thoughts.
  5. Based on work by Dr. James Pennebaker, Dr. Nolen-Hoeksema recommends writing thoughts out in an effort to reduce the thoughts from going around in circles in your head. The key here is to make sure that the writing is leading to a sense of resolve and relief rather than adding a new place for ruminating. If you find that it makes things worse, then it is best to try some of the other strategies in this post. If you are interested in learning more about Pennebaker’s approach, you can watch this video.
  6. Talk to someone about the problem to try to gain new perspective (just beware of co-rumination (“extensively discussing and revisiting problems, speculating about problems, and focusing on negative feelings”), which can exacerbate the problem.
  7. Create positive emotions. Research suggests that creating momentary positive feelings can help people to cope more effectively with their problems. It might seem like this is particularly hard to do when stuck in a rumination cycle. However, if you can find something to add some positive emotions, even briefly, it might help you to look at your problem differently. Some suggestions for this include watching a funny video or book, singing/listening to/dancing to an upbeat song, going somewhere that makes you feel happy, etc.

Because it can be hard to remember the options listed above while in a ruminative state, it can be helpful to have a list ready (e.g., on an index card in your wallet, on your phone, on your computer) of healthy coping strategies. That way, if you find yourself ruminating, you can refer to your list for specific suggestions to try during difficult moments.

I hope that you find these recommendations helpful for reducing overthinking. However, if you feel that you are stuck or that your rumination is leading to significant distress or impairment in your life (e.g., negatively affecting relationships, work, or school), please seek help from a mental health professional.  This article by Dr. Jill Holm Denoma on Psychotherapy Brown Bag‘s website explains how to find a good therapist.

In addition, sometimes thoughts and memories can keep returning to people’s minds because of the experience of a traumatic event. This can be quite different than rumination, and I recommend seeking professional help specific to trauma if that is what you are experiencing.

My Top 10 Tips for Grad Students

The transition from being an undergraduate student to becoming a graduate student can be challenging. One aspect that graduate students may struggle with is the ability to decipher faculty expectations. A couple of weeks ago, I gave a presentation on this topic that included my top 10 tips for graduate students. I am posting them here in case they are helpful.

  1. Clarify expectations, and then put forth your best effort to meet those expectations. Sometimes students feel embarrassed to ask faculty to spell out what they want for a particular project due to fear that they will look unprepared or unintelligent. However, taking time to clarify expectations typically leads to a better outcome both in terms of completing a task correctly and decreasing uncertainty and anxiety for the student during the process.
  2. Practice conversational skills, listening, and otherwise refining your interpersonal interaction style. These skills are important to develop for networking, job interviews, and opening up collaborative opportunities. I recommend seeking out ways to practice in order to feel more comfortable and confident interacting with other professionals in your field. If you want feedback about your interpersonal skills, I recommend asking faculty or more senior graduate students who you trust to be honest and constructive.
  3. Complain discreetly. Almost all (if not all) people vent or complain about the less desirable aspects of their work and life from time to time. It can be a helpful way to process emotions and garner social support. However, if complaining about graduate school-related topics is done frequently, particularly in public domains (e.g., in public hallways and public places, social media), it may suggest to people that you are dissatisfied with your line of work and may fit better in a different field.
  4. Act respectfully toward others, not just people you view as crucial to career advancement. Though it’s a rare occurrence, sometimes people will only act respectfully toward certain professors that they view as vital to their advancement and less respectful to others, including their peers and administrative staff.  Word gets around about people who do this, and it can reflect negatively on you.
  5. Respond well to feedbackOften students who enter graduate school are used to being among the top students from their undergraduate classes. It can feel especially difficulty to start receiving more in-depth criticism on writing, presentations, and other aspects of your work. It is important to keep in mind that you are working to attain a much higher skill level than before, and feedback is necessary for you to reach that higher skill level. As best as you can, try to accept that feedback is part of the learning process and not a personal attack or sign that you are incapable. Try to be open to feedback and respond well to it.  You are not expected to do something perfectly the first time you try, but it will reflect positively on you if you listen non-defensively to feedback and incorporate changes based on it.
  6. Be mindful of your online presence. Many employers, students, and clients will look you up on social media. Keep this heightened visibility in mind as you transition into a more professional role as a teaching assistant, begin practicum experiences and internships in your field, etc. Try to keep in mind that anything posted with a public setting may be viewed by people other than your friends and family, and tailor your online presence accordingly.
  7. Show interest. If you are passionate about your field and demonstrate that through enthusiasm about your work and the work of others, people will be able to see you as a professional in the field. If it appears that you are doing the bare minimum asked of you, tuning out in class or lab meetings, or otherwise going through the motions, you may want to consider whether you would be happier in a different field.
  8. Be engaged. In my seven years as a faculty member, I have repeatedly heard other faculty members talk about graduate students who impress them. Consistently, they are students who demonstrate that they are engaged through consistent, hard work, going above and beyond what is asked of them, and seeking out additional opportunities for learning (e.g., attending presentations or reading materials that are not required), and independently seeking out professional growth opportunities (e.g., initiating research projects and papers, presenting at conferences, applying for grants and fellowships, attending specialized workshops).
  9. Act with integrity. Regardless of achievements or talent, if a person does not act with integrity (e.g., treats people disrespectfully, acts in an aggressive or discriminatory manner, lies, or cheats), then faculty will be reluctant to work with or hire them. On the other hand, if a graduate student treats others fairly and acts honestly and ethically, then faculty can wholeheartedly recommend them to future employers and collaborators without reservations. In most cases, if you make a mistake, you can still prove that you have good character by taking responsibility, apologizing, making amends, and proving that you have changed your behavior.
  10. Take care of yourself. Finding a balance between working really hard and taking care of yourself can be difficult. Yet, it is essential to prevent burnout, maintain productivity, and, most importantly, to protect your physical and mental health. If you find yourself struggling to strike this balance (as most of us do), consult faculty members and peer role models for advice, and please consider seeking counseling as an option as well. Discussing your values and well-being needs with a person outside of your program can help to clarify what you need to do to take care of yourself while balancing the important, hard work that you need to do in order to succeed professionally.

Navigating graduate school can be a challenging process. You were admitted into your program because the faculty in your department have confidence that you have what it takes to succeed. I hope that you can take some comfort in that fact while balancing the numerous demands of graduate school.
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 Maplewood State Park, 57 miles from NDSU

Grandma & Science Agree: Social Connections are Good for Your Health

There’s an expression in academia that goes something like, “You don’t really understand something unless you can explain it to your grandmother.” The implication is that you should comprehend something so deeply that you can then transform your knowledge into such a simple explanation that even your grandma would grasp it. Understandably, some view this particular saying as insulting to grandmas. I laugh when I hear it, because my grandma is one of the most knowledgeable and intellectually-interested people I have ever met. So, for me, explaining something to my grandma is quite easy. Frankly, she does most of the work for me.

In honor of her birthday, I thought I’d share a major life lesson that my grandma has explained to me, rather than the other way around. My grandma is the type of person who really listens to people when they’re talking, pays attention to their stories, empathizes with them, and connects fully with them. She makes an effort to nurture relationships with family and friends like no other person I’ve met. She took each of her 11 grandchildren on vacations just to have quality time and make special memories with all of us. Every other year, she rents out rooms for all of us near the ocean so that her children, grandchildren, and now her great-grand-children, can get together from different regions of the country and spend time together. She flies around the country to attend graduations, weddings, and school plays. She keeps in touch with friends and neighbors who she met decades ago through letters, phone calls, Facebook, and Skype.

Anecdotally, these efforts seem to be very beneficial for our family’s health. Scientific research suggests that grandma’s approach works for others too. Our lab’s research tends to specifically focus on the detrimental effects of loneliness and social isolation as related to poor mental health outcomes, particularly disordered eating and suicidal behavior. However, the research is clear that physical health is impacted by these factors as well. For example, a recent meta-analysis examining data from 70 different studies from around the world revealed that people who experienced loneliness and social isolation had a much greater risk of mortality during study follow-up periods than individuals who reported lower levels of loneliness (the average follow up period was ~7 years). Importantly, this effect existed even when statistically accounting for other important factors, such as having health problems at baseline and smoking. The authors concluded, based on the evidence, that loneliness should be listed as a risk factor and public health concern along with other typically identified factors such as physical activity, diet, and substance abuse.

I’ll conclude by saying, thank you, grandma, for explaining it in a way that this academic could understand. Science agrees with your wisdom about the importance of nurturing relationships for a healthy life, and I am thankful to have a strong role model in mind as I try to understand and alleviate loneliness through my work.

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